Cedar Falls, IA. The leaders of the movement tended to be educated, middle-class white women with money.
Many Black women joined suffrage organizations that addressed their specific experiences. Leading reformers including Harriet Tubman , Frances E. Harper, Ida B.
The NWP had a variety of strategies to bring attention to the suffrage movement. Capitol and Senate office buildings. They participated in lobbying, nonviolent protests, hunger strikes, civil disobedience, and silent vigils. Street speaking, pageants, and parades were some of their more eye-catching actions. Alice Paul organized the largest suffrage pageant, which took place in Washington, D.
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About eight thousand women marched from the Capitol to the White House, carrying banners and escorting floats. The , spectators watched the march, some in support. Others harassed and attacked suffragists in the parade; over women were hospitalized with injuries that day.
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The parade was important, not only because of its size, but also because the participants challenged traditional ideas of how women should behave in public. They were loud, bold, and theatrical.
Women’s Suffrage Collection
Such opposition would eventually be overruled. The amendment then went to the states for ratification. Thirty-six states needed to ratify the amendment in order for it to be adopted, and Harry Burn in the Tennessee House of Representatives cast the decisive vote.
On August 18, , the Nineteenth Amendment went into effect. On November 2 of that year, over eight million women voted in the U. Women also ran for political office in greater numbers.enpecreranja.ga
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Jeanette Rankin was one of the few women to hold an office before the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. Who are the first leaders who come to your mind?
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What makes those people great leaders? They have also excavated the role of African-American women , who were largely excluded from the major, white-led suffrage organizations and marginalized in the early histories of the movement, if they were mentioned at all. Did it grant the vote to women?
Not exactly. Before , 15 states, mainly in the West, already had full female suffrage, while others granted women partial voting rights. And after the amendment, which declared only that states could not discriminate in voting based on sex, millions of women of color were still barred from the polls.
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Most African-American women in the South, like African-American men, were blocked by poll taxes, literacy tests and other racial barriers, while Native Americans and Asian immigrants were largely excluded from citizenship entirely. The three exhibitions each aim to cover the whole story, but with subtly different emphases and timelines. But the show also traces how the fight for suffrage became a mass movement in the early 20th century, advocated and advertised via sheet music, tote bags, buttons, souvenir fans, even suffrage cookbooks.
Stories of African-American women and other women of color are woven into the narrative at the library. To assemble the group, the gallery had to reach beyond its own collections, which are disproportionately white and male.
Small portraits of Anthony and Stanton are in a central case in the main gallery, along with a portrait of Sojourner Truth. The exhibition, which Dr. Muncy curated with Corinne Porter, a National Archives curator, makes clear how that earlier voting by women mattered politically, giving steam to the movement. As women gained votes in more states, support for the 19th Amendment grew in Congress. But the show does not neglect fractures within the movement.
And it also highlights figures like Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin , a Chippewa law student who marched in the Washington parade, and Mabel Ping-Hua Lee , a Chinese immigrant who as a teenager helped lead a suffrage parade in New York on horseback, despite being ineligible for citizenship under the Chinese Exclusion Act.