Grofman and Brazill The amount of time between Supreme Court nominations and the final committee vote has varied significantly, from three days or less to days, in the case of the nomination of Louis D. Between and , from Marshall to Sotomayor, the Judiciary Committee has consistently taken more time; the average is around 50 days, but some took more than 80 days. Bearden and Rutkus The table below shows how the trend changed between the confirmation of Marshall and his predecessor, Tom Clark.
Source: Bearden, Maureen and Steven Rutkus. Supreme Court Nominations, present Washington: Congressional Research Service, In his book, Pathways to the U. Of those four paths, however, the most common is vertically, as former judges in other courts. Justices elevate from this route Marshall ascended by a less common path, by serving as Solicitor General.
Nelson calls this the diagonal route; only So then, what is the appropriate role of the Senate in Supreme Court nominations? Should the voting public have a more active role in the nominations? Or should it be just left to the President? If left to the President without Senate consent, the nominees would be ideologically suited to the President his party. Since Justices have lifetime appointment and Presidents have term limits, this may cause conflict between the Court and future administrations. The Senate consent feature acts as a check and balance of the Executive as intended by the framers.
Similarly, if the nomination is left to the voting population, individuals may not fully comprehend the impact of a decision based solely on popularity or publicity. Individuals may not balance their own personal views against the needs of society in making a decision.
Furthermore, the average individual may not be qualified to determine the potential future legal effect a lifetime appointment on the laws of the country. The American Bar Association reports that in , a mere. American Bar Association.
Using census data from the Bureau of Labor and Statistics and including a more generous pool of the population to include lawyers, law students, law professors, clerks, judges, paralegals and other legal support positions, while narrowing the scope to include only the employed portion of the population, the number is still a meager 0. Bureau of Labor and Statistics. One study linked constituent opinion to Senate voting patterns and researched how the visibility of the roll-call during Senate confirmation hearings influenced outcomes.
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Senators tend to vote against nominees with controversial policies. Stakes are high in the competition for re-election and senators must be responsive to the views of their constituents. Kastellec, Lax and Phillips ,, Senators are elected officials, representing their constituents.
Thurgood Marshall: Supreme Court Nomination and Confirmation
Some interviews, conducted in the late s, contain recollections dating back to the second administration of Grover Cleveland. An interview with Charles C. Burlingham conducted in opens with a discussion of the drafts riots during the U. Civil War.
The Oral History Research Office has never confined its work to one area of historical experience or to one region. It is the only oral history program in the country which conducts interviews over a broad range of fields and areas. Thus it has attracted scholars from around the world, whose research has examined almost every aspect of our recent past.
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The focus of the collection is United States political and cultural history. However, there are large projects in the history of China and Argentina, and some scattered interviews on the histories of other countries. Each year approximately to interviews are added to the collection through the efforts of the OHRO itself and by donation.
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These interviews generally fall into two categories: longer biographical memoirs and shorter interviews focused on specific topics or experiences. Cuneiform Tablet Grant to Cluny Marco Polo Gilles Le Bouvier Kennedy appointed Thurgood Marshall as a judge for the U.
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Second Circuit Court of Appeals. Serving as a circuit court judge over the next four years, Marshall issued more than decisions, none of which was overturned by the Supreme Court.
In , Kennedy's successor, Lyndon B. Johnson , appointed Marshall to serve as the first black U. During his two years as solicitor general, Marshall won 14 of the 19 cases that he argued before the Supreme Court. In , President Johnson nominated Marshall to serve on the bench before which he had successfully argued so many times before: the United States Supreme Court. On October 2, , Marshall was sworn in as a Supreme Court justice, becoming the first African American to serve on the nation's highest court. As a Supreme Court justice, Marshall consistently supported rulings upholding a strong protection of individual rights and liberal interpretations of controversial social issues.
He was part of the majority that ruled in favor of the right to abortion in the landmark case Roe v. Wade , among several other cases. In the case Furman v. Georgia , which led to a de facto moratorium on the death penalty, Marshall articulated his opinion that the death penalty was unconstitutional in all circumstances. Throughout Marshall's year tenure on the Court, Republican presidents appointed eight consecutive justices, and Marshall gradually became an isolated liberal member of an increasingly conservative Court. For the latter part of his time on the bench, Marshall was largely relegated to issuing strongly-worded dissents, as the Court reinstated the death penalty and limited affirmative action measures and abortion rights.
Although he may be the least popularly celebrated of the three, Marshall was arguably the most instrumental in the movement's achievements toward racial equality. Marshall's strategy of attacking racial inequality through the courts represented a third way of pursuing racial equality, more pragmatic than King's soaring rhetoric and less polemical than Malcolm X's strident separatism. In the aftermath of Marshall's death, an obituary read: "We make movies about Malcolm X, we get a holiday to honor Dr.
We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletters to receive stories daily and weekly about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. John Marshall became the fourth chief justice of the U.
Supreme Court in He is largely responsible for establishing the Supreme Court's role in federal government. Medgar Evers was a civil rights activist who organized voter-registration efforts, demonstrations and boycotts of companies that practiced discrimination. He was controversially appointed in and leans conservative. Ruth Bader Ginsburg is a U. Supreme Court justice, the second woman to be appointed to the position.
Amiri Baraka is an African-American poet, activist and scholar. He was an influential black nationalist and later became a Marxist.